The diversity and richness of all species vary on Earth. The main reason behind this asymmetricity is the difference in the climate. The Biodiversity near the equator is more. This is because of its warm climate and high primary productivity. On the other hand, marine biodiversity is found more on the coasts of the western Pacific Ocean. This is because of the warm climate in the coastal area.
What is biodiversity?
The term Biodiversity was first used by Walter G. Rosen in 1986. Biodiversity is the variety seen between organisms that include the variety of species, variety between species and their ecosystems.
Biodiversity includes diversity seen in all species in a different region of the world, different ecosystems related to them, differences in genes between species, species richness, diversity of their habitats, and more.
The variety of species is seen as three different levels.
1. Genetic diversity
Variability found in the same species of animals or plants is referred to as genetic diversity. For example, there are 88,000 varieties recorded of Oryza sativa (rice).
2. Species diversity
This type of diversity is seen between different species.The tropical rainforest near the equator has the highest biodiversity. The best example of this is the Amazon rainforest, which is the region with the most biodiversity in the world.
3. Ecosystem diversity
There are a large variety of ecosystem and in each ecosystem has different and special types of species found. Thus, the diversity of species in an ecosystem is called ecological diversity. This diversity is relatively difficult to measure because the boundaries of its various landforms or sub-positions are not clear.The ecosystem diversity further divided into three levels.
- Alpha diversity
- Beta diversity
- Gamma diversity
Importance of biodiversity
- Biodiversity is helpful in soil formation and its conservation. Biodiversity improves soil structure, increases water-holding capacity and nutrient content. Biodiversity is helpful in water conservation as it keeps the aquatic cycle in motion.
- Botanical biodiversity promotes water seepage into the ground, thereby maintaining the underground water level.
- The forest plays a huge role to control the amount of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the air. the many industrial primary necessary is fulfilled by forest. The forest plays an essential role in controlling carbon dioxide which is one of the important greenhouse gases. But nowadays the amount of carbon dioxide in the air is increasing mainly due to deforestation.
- Biodiversity is important for environmental protection, ecological sustainability, increase in crop production as well as protection from heat, flood, drought, land degradation, etc.