Soil pollution: Causes, types, effects, control of the soil pollution

The waste, toxins, and heavy metal affect the quality of the soil. The polluted soil has to be a serious impact on the environment. Likewise water and air, the soil is also equally important for living organisms. It supports plants on which all other living organisms depend.

The vegetations and plants get their essential nutrients from the soil. The process of soil formation is so slow that the soil may be considered as a non-renewable source.

What is soil pollution?

Any substance that reduces soil quality and productivity is called soil pollutants.

Soil is a complex system of bio and mineral elements which is formed over a long time as a result of interactions of climatic and physical factors. On the other hand, the fundamental properties of soil are destroyed by the continuous use of agricultural land, the use of pesticide chemicals, forest erosion, and accumulation of heavy metals. As a result, mineral circulation does not occur.

Sources of Soil Pollution

There are many sources of soil pollution, majority of them are agriculture, atmospheric sources, and industrial disposal.


   today most of the farmers use chemical fertilizer, insecticides, and pesticides. Now, they have left behind that natural or biofertilizer.

The containment of petrochemical, nitrogen, and phosphorus in the fertilizer and pesticides affect the quality of the soil. As a result, crops do not get sufficient nutrition from that soil.

Moreover, those toxic chemicals go into our body through food chain or web. According to world food and agriculture organizations, every year 5 lakhs people are getting die due to the toxicity of fertilizer.

Waste ( solid and liquid)

the solid waste like a household waste, plastic, industrial waste, and iron waste has a serious impacts on the quality of the soil. Some of them have included organic and inorganic toxic which causes soil pollution.

Also radioactive elements such as cadmium, lead, and strontium affect the Liveliness and fertility of the land. Plastic does not show biologically degradation for many years. Therefore, plastic remaining there for a long time and polluting the soil of that region.

Natural causes

  • Soil erosion and land excavation¬†are the natural factors decreasing the physical, biological, and chemical structure of the land. Along with this, rainfall, temperature, wind, some biological factors, and the soil mining also cause soil pollution.
  • Soil salinity: Excessive concentration of soluble salts in soil is called salination. This adversely affects the quality and productivity of the soil. Salination of soil hinders the growth of plants.

Types of Soil Pollution

  Positive soil pollution

Reduction in the productivity of soil due to the addition of undesirable substances is called positive pollution. The undesirable substance includes pesticides, herbicides, and fertilizers. This type of soil pollution kills the bio-organism which lives in the land.

Negative soil pollution

It is caused by the removal of useful components from the soil by erosion, deforestation and improper methods of agriculture.

Effect of Soil Pollutants

  • Soil erosion turns the soil into a wasteland.
  • Chemicals and pesticides affect the structure and fertility of the soil by killing the soil microorganisms. Due to chemical fertilizers and insecticides, there is an imbalance in the entire ecosystem.
  • Pathogens present in the waste and excreta contaminate the soil and vegetable crops. which causing diseases in man and domesticated animals

Control of Soil Pollution

  • For the improvement of soil with high salinity, chemical soil reformers like gypsum and pyrites should be used as suggested by the scientists.
  • To save the land that is destroyed by flood, it is necessary to formulate and implement schemes.
  • It is necessary to pay attention to land use and crop management.
  • Materials like paper, glass, and plastics can be recycled.


What is soil pollution?

Contamination of soil by human and natural activities leads to the degradation of soil quality and productivity, known as soil pollution.

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