Wind is the movement of the air. The wind arises due to the difference in pressure. The winds are responsible for weather phenomena. Winds are important as they bring clouds. The wind is now becoming an important source of electrical energy.
How is wind formed?
Everywhere on Earth, the temperature is uneven. Where the temperature is high, the air becomes light and eventually produces low pressure. While area having low temperature produces high pressure. As a result of this inequality of pressure, the air moves from a high-pressure area to a low-pressure area. So, the movement of air in the horizontal direction is referred to as wind.
The air pressure difference between the two regions determines the wind speed. If large pressure changes over a short distance, then the wind blows fast.
The average speed of wind on the earth’s surface is 10-30 km/h. The largest wind speed recorded on Earth is 372 km / h at Mount Washington in New Hampshire in April 1934. Cape Dennison of Antarctica is the windiest place on earth
The direction of winds
Wind always flows from the high-pressure area to the low-pressure area. The direction of the wind is affected by the Coriolis Effect, pressure gradient, and friction.
Coriolis effect is the result of the earth’s rotation. Coriolis effect deflects the path of the wind. The pressure gradient is the change in air pressure per unit distance.
Types of winds
1. Planetary or Prevailing winds
The winds that blow on the entire Earth are called planetary winds. The planetary wind also called prevailing winds. The planetary winds blow throughout the year. The planetary winds are divided into three categories: Trade Winds, Westerlies, and Polar winds.
2. Periodic or seasonal winds
The wind that blows according to the season or blows again after some period of time is called seasonal or periodic winds. The monsoon winds are the seasonal winds.
3. Local winds
The winds that blow due to the difference in local temperature and pressure are called local wind. There are many types of local wind. The land breezes, sea breezes, anabatic winds, and katabatic winds are some known local winds types.
Wind also flows in a vertical direction. As we go at high altitude pressure decreases. thus, the vertical wind blows in the upward direction.