Biodiversity conservation and its methods

Loss of biodiversity

        The rapid destruction of the natural habitat is a threat to biodiversity. Due to habitat loss, species do not get full liberty of time and space for their survival. As a result loss of biodiversity can be seen. The following factors are causes to habitat loss:

  • Overpopulation 
  • Deforestation 
  • Overconsumption
  • Pollution
  • Climate change.

    The diversity of species seen on earth is according to the climate since they are favorable in it. In a warm climate, more diverse species are found. Pollution is another factor that damages the ecosystem. Some species cannot survive in highly polluted areas. so, they leave their habitat. The toxic pollutants affect the organisms by entering the food chain. The major cause of biodiversity loss is the human population growth rate and the human enterprise scale.

Despite habitat loss, poaching is another act that has caused many species to become extinct. The purpose behind illegal hunting is such illegal activities like smuggling of wildlife products such as horns, furs, etc. So, that’s why the African elephant and rhino are facing a risk of extinction.

Biodiversity conservation

The tremendous loss of biodiversity is a serious concern for humans. Therefore, the conservation of biodiversity is very important. we need to make a proper strategy to conserve threatened species. Some important points to be taken consider are:

  1.  All the important species should be identified and categorized such as rare, vulnerable, endangered species, etc. 
  2.  work on the factor that causes biodiversity loss like environmental pollution, unmanaged development activities, deforestation, poaching, etc. 
  3.  some natural habitat area should be protected from any activities 
  4.  increase public awareness and make some organization for this issue

Biodiversity conservation methods

           There are two methods for biodiversity conservation which discussed below.

In Situ conservation ( Within habitat)

In this conservation, the species are kept in natural habitat and here they survive. this is done by declaring certain areas for In Situ conservation and it is protected. The different In situ conservation could be a national park, sanctuaries, biosphere reserves, forest reserves, etc.

Sanctuaries: It’s an area reserved for the conservation of species like the animal, bird, etc. It could be owned by a government or private agency.

National park: It is also area legally reserved for wildlife, bird, flora, fauna, historical object, etc. It is owned by the national government and it’s restricted to the public.

Biosphere reserves: Biosphere reserves are areas of terrestrial or coastal ecosystems where flora and fauna are protected. this is a region with a large ecosystem and it’s larger than national parks and sanctuaries.

Ex-situ conservation

         Here, species are conserved outside of their habitat. This is done by the establishment of artificial habitat like a zoo, aquarium, gene bank, botanical garden, etc.

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